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CORONA – The Virus

CORONA – The Virus

Virus Definition

A virus is a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.

Viruses are small particles of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) that are surrounded by a protein coat. Some viruses also have a fatty “envelope” covering. They are incapable of reproducing on their own. Viruses depend on the organisms they infect (hosts) for their very survival. Viruses get a bad rap, but they also perform many important functions for humans, plants, animals, and the environment. For example, some viruses protect the host against other infections. Viruses also participate in the process of evolution by transferring genes among different species. In biomedical research, scientists use viruses to insert new genes into cells.

Definition of Bacteria

Bacteria are the plural of bacterium, which are microscopic one-celled organisms. They are found everywhere and can be harmful, as in infections; or they can be beneficial, as in fermentation or decomposition. Five types of bacteria are: Coccus, Bacillus, Spirillum, Rickettsia, and Mycoplasma.

How Bacteria and Virus works on Human Body

There is a close connection between microbes and humans. Experts believe about half of all human DNA originated from viruses that infected and embedded their nucleic acid in our ancestors’ egg and sperm cells.

Microbes occupy all of our body surfaces, including the skin, gut, and mucous membranes. In fact, our bodies contain at least 10 times more bacterial cells than human ones, blurring the line between where microbes end and humans begin. Microbes in the human gastrointestinal tract alone comprise at least 10 trillion organisms, representing more than 1,000 species, which are thought to prevent the gut from being colonized by disease-causing organisms. Among their other beneficial roles, microbes synthesize vitamins, break down food into absorbable nutrients, and stimulate our immune systems.

Types of Microbes

There are five major categories of infectious agents: Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths.

Entering the Human Host

Microorganisms capable of causing disease—pathogens—usually enter our bodies through the mouth, eyes, nose, or urogenital openings, or through wounds or bites that breach the skin barrier. Organisms can spread—or be transmitted—by several routes

Different Types of Virus 

  • Marburg virus
  • Ebola virus
  • Rabies
  • HIV
  • Smallpox
  • Hantavirus
  • Influenza
  • Dengue
  • Rotavirus
  • SARS-CoV
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • MERS-CoV
  • Corona

Different Types of Bacteria

  • Coccus
  • Bacillus
  • Spirillum
  • Rickettsia
  • Mycoplasma
  • Bacteria in Fermentation
  • Bacterial Infections

Bacteria vs Virus

Viruses and bacteria are two types of potentially disease-causing (pathogenic) particles. Viruses are much smaller than bacteria and can’t reproduce without the assistance of a host. Bacteria are capable of reproducing on their own. The symptoms of viral and bacterial illnesses are sometimes similar. A doctor can determine the underlying cause of an illness based on the patient’s symptoms and other factors. Lab tests may help clarify whether an illness is due to a virus, bacteria, or other infectious agent or disease process.

Symptoms to Human Body due to Corona

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause illnesses such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In 2019, a new coronavirus was identified as the cause of a disease outbreak that originated in China.

The virus is now known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The disease it causes is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic.

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may appear two to 14 days after exposure. This time after exposure and before having symptoms is called the incubation period. Common signs and symptoms can include

  • Fever
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

Other symptoms can include

  • Tiredness
  • Aches
  • Chills
  • Sore throat
  • Loss of smell
  • Loss of taste
  • Headache
  • Diarrhea
  • Severe vomiting

The severity of COVID-19 symptoms can range from very mild to severe. Some people may have only a few symptoms, and some people may have no symptoms at all. People who are older or who have existing chronic medical conditions, such as heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, severe obesity, chronic kidney or liver disease, or who have compromised immune systems may be at higher risk of serious illness. This is similar to what is seen with other respiratory illnesses, such as influenza.

When to see a doctor?

  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent chest pain or pressure
  • New confusion
  • Blue lips or face

Complications

  • Pneumonia in both lungs
  • Organ failure in several organs
  • Respiratory failure
  • Heart problems, such as heart rhythm problems and a disease of the heart muscle that makes it hard for your heart to pump blood to the body (cardiomyopathy)
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Additional viral and bacterial infections

Prevention

  • Avoid large events and mass gatherings.
  • Avoid close contact (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters) with anyone who is sick or has symptoms.
  • Stay home as much as possible and keep distance between yourself and others (within about 6 feet, or 2 meters) if COVID-19 is spreading in your community, especially if you have a higher risk of serious illness. Keep in mind some people may have COVID-19 and spread it to others, even if they don’t have symptoms or don’t know they have COVID-19.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Cover your face with a cloth face covering in public spaces, such as the grocery store, where it’s difficult to avoid close contact with others, especially if you’re in an area with ongoing community spread.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the used tissue.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
  • Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces daily.
  • Avoid Travelling

What is a Computer Virus?

A computer virus is a type of computer program that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code. When this replication succeeds, the affected areas are then said to be “infected” with a computer virus

Terminologies Related to Virus

  • Computer worm
  • Trojan horse
  • malware
  • ransomware
  • spyware
  • adware
  • keyloggers
  • rootkits
  • bootkits
  • Browser Helper Object
  • spamming
  • logging their keystrokes

Types of Computer Virus

  • Boot Sector Virus
  • Direct Action Virus
  • Resident Virus
  • Multipartite Virus
  • Polymorphic Virus
  • Overwrite Virus
  • Spacefiller Virus
  • File Infector Virus

Computer Virus Symptoms

  • A slow performing computer
  • Pop-ups automatically showing up on the screen
  • Programs running on their own
  • Automatic multiplying/duplicating files
  • Presence of unknown files and applications on the computer
  • Files getting deleted or corrupted

How to get rid of a computer virus

  • Download and install a virus scanner
  • Download and install a virus scanner
  • Reboot your computer into safe mode
  • Delete any temporary files
  • Run a virus scan
  • Delete or quarantine the virus
  • Reboot your compute
  • Change all your passwords
  • Update your software, browser and operating system

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